Efficient Weight Learning for Markov Logic Networks

Daniel Lowd and Pedro Domingos


Markov logic networks (MLNs) combine Markov networks and first-order logic, and are a powerful and increasingly popular representation for statistical relational learning. The state-of-the-art method for discriminative learning of MLN weights is the voted perceptron algorithm, which is essentially gradient descent with an MPE approximation to the expected sufficient statistics (true clause counts). Unfortunately, these can vary widely between clauses, causing the learning problem to be highly ill-conditioned, and making gradient descent very slow. In this paper, we explore several alternatives, from per-weight learning rates to second-order methods. In particular, we focus on two approaches that avoid computing the partition function: diagonal Newton and scaled conjugate gradient. In experiments on standard SRL datasets, we obtain order-of-magnitude speedups, or more accurate models given comparable learning times.



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